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DATA

The problem with outdoor wood-fired boilers (OWBs)
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Climate Change Killing 300,000 Per Year

 
According to an article posted at CNN, Science News, World News:
The first comprehensive report into the human cost of climate change warns the world is in the throes of a "silent crisis" that is killing 300,000 people each year.
More than 300 million people are already seriously affected by the gradual warming of the earth and that number is set to double by 2030, the report from the Global Humanitarian Forum warns.
 
 

The EPA estimates that the lifetime cancer risk from wood stove smoke is twelve times greater than that from an equal volume of second hand tobacco smoke. (The Health Effects of Wood Smoke, Washington State Department of Ecology);

"Burning two cords of wood produces the same amount of mutagenic particles as: Driving 13 gasoline powered cars 10,000 miles each at 20 miles/gallon or driving 2 diesel powered cars 10,000 miles each @ 30 miles/gallon. These figures indicate that the worst contribution that an individual is likely to make to the mutagenicity of the air is using a wood stove for heating, followed by driving a diesel car. (Dr. Joellen Lewtas,Contribution of Source Emissions of the Mutagenicity of Ambient Urban Air Particles,U.S. EPA, #91-131.6, 1991)


 

 

Wood Smoke Emissions

Pollutant Physical State Emissions for g/kg Wood

 

Pollutant

Physical State

Emissions for g/kg Wood

Health Effects

Carbon Monoxide

V

80-370

Poison: resulting change of oxyhemaglobin carboxyhemoglobin. Tissue hypoxia, cellular death, damages to the central nervous system, death. Causes reproductive toxicity. Reduces ability of blood to bring oxygen to body cells and tissues; cells and tissues need oxygen to work. May be particularly hazardous to people who have heart or circulatory (blood vessel) problems and people who have damaged lungs or breathing passages.

Methane

V

14-25

 

VOCs (C2-C7)

V

7-27

Volatile Organic Compounds cause serious health problems such as cancer and other effects. All VOCs contain carbon. They can cause serious human illness. Hazardous. Causes ozone. Ozone causes breathing problems, reduced lung function, asthma, irritates eyes, stuffy nose, reduced resistance to colds and other infections, may speed up aging of lung tissues. Causes fatigue, generalized depression, increased lethargy or sleep, headaches, substernal pressure, generalized aches and accelerated cardiac action.

Aldehydes

V

0.6 -5.4

 

Formaldehyde

V

0.1- 0.7

The gas is toxic if inhaled or absorbed through the skin and is carcinogenic.

Acrolein

V

0.02- 0.1

Toxic, Bronchopneumonia, aveolitis, swelling and hemorrhaging of tiny vessels.

Propionaldehyde

V

0.1- 0.3

Toxic, Inhalation:
Causes irritation to the respiratory tract. Symptoms may include coughing, shortness of breath. High concentrations can cause pulmonary edema.

Butryaldehyde

V

0.01-1.7

 

Acetaldehyde

V

0.03 - 0.6

Toxic: degeneration of olfactory epithelium, liver lesions, nasal cancer, growth retardation.16

Furfural

V

0.2-1.6 1.6

Irritates mucous membranes, causes headaches and photosensitivity and affects sugar metabolism.

Substituted Furans

V

0.15 -1.7

 

Benzene

V

0.6-4.0

Colorless volatile liquid. Harmful by transdermal absorption and acutely toxic by ingestion or inhalation, causing mucous membrane irritation, neurological symptoms, and death due to respiratory failure; chronic exposure may result in bone marrow depression and anemia. Causes reproductive toxicity.

Alkyl Benzenes

V

1-6

 

Toluene

V

0.15 -1.0

Toulene is a well known addictive substance. (Glue sniffing) It gives feelings of intoxication. Causes sleepiness, dizziness, headache, muscular weakness, confusion, impaired co-ordination, and visual impairment. It is neurotoxic causing neurobehaivioral changes. Causes changes in liver and kidneys, erosion of the nose, degeneration of respiratory tract skin. Chronic abuse causes damage to the brain in the cerebral area and causes brain stem atrophy. Causes reproductive toxicity. Accumulates in blood and subcutaneous fat if insufficient clearance time between exposures. Irritates eyes and upper respiratory tract.

Acetic Acid

V

1.8 -2.4

Irritant

Formic Acid

V

0.06-0.08

More irritating than acetic acid. Dangerously caustic to the skin.

Nitrogen Oxides (NO,NO2)

V

0.2-0.9

Lung damage. Illnesses of breathing passages and lungs (respiratory system

Sulfur Dioxide

V

0.16-0.24

Insecticide. Breathing problems, may cause permanent damage to lungs.

Methyl chloride

V

0.01-0.04

Toxic

Napthalene

V

0.24-1.6

Toxic, Carcinogenic.

Substituted Napthalenes

V/P

0.3-2.1

Toxic

Oxygenated Monoaromatics

V/P

1 - 7

 

 Guaiacol (and derivatives)

V/P

0.4-1.6

Inhalation:
May cause irritation to the respiratory tract.

Phenol (and derivatives)

V/P

0.2-0.8

Poison: colic, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, shock, respiratory arrest. Toxic, tremors, lower fetal body weight, possible skin carcinogen, EPA Inhalation data insufficient.

Syringol (and derivatives)

V/P

0.7-2.7

 

 Catechol (and derivatives)

V/P

0.2-0.8

Toxic

Total Particle Mass

P

7-30

 

 Particulate Organic Carbon

P

2-20

Toxic

Oxygenated PAHs

V/P

0.15-1

 

 PAHs

V/P

 

Toxic

Fluorene

V/P

4x10-5 - 1.7x10-2

 

 Phenanthrene

V/P

2x10-5 - 3.4x10-2

Also in coal. It is toxic and carcinogenic.

 Anthracene

 V/P

 5x10-5 - 2.1x10-5

 Toxic

Methylanthracenes

V/P

7xl0-5 - 8x10-5

 

Fluoranthene

V/P

7xl0-4- 4.2xl0-2

 Toxic

Pyrene

V/P

8x10-4 - 3.1x10-2

 Toxic

Benzo(a)anthracene

V/P

4x10-4 - 2x10-3

Toxic, probable human carcinogen. DNA damage and Gene mutation in mammalian cell cultures.

Chrysene

V/P

5x10-4x10-2

 Toxic

 

Benzofluoranthenes

 

V/P

 

6x10-4- 5x10-3

 

 Toxic

Benzo(e)pyrene

V/P

2x10-4 - 4x10-3

 Toxic

Benzo(a)pyrene

V/P

3x10-4- 5x10-3

 Toxic, Highly carcinogenic.

Some of the known wood smoke chemicals, with a key for the physical state they are in.

The list is from one published study (Larson, 1993), the weight of each of these pollutants per kilogram of wood burned is given.

 

 Taken from Environment Canada - CAC Emission Summaries

2006 Air Pollutant Emissions for Ontario (Tonnes)Version 1, April 2008

SECTORS TPM PM10 PM2.5 SOx NOx VOC CO NH3
Industrial Sources
Abrasives Manufacture 15 13 6 0   33 5 0
Aluminum Industry                
Alumina (Bauxite Refining)                
Primary Aluminum Smelting & Refining                
Secondary Aluminum (Includes Recycling)                
Asbestos Industry                
Asphalt Paving Industry 14,098 2,256 755 0     793  
Bakeries       0   4,210    
Cement and Concrete Industry 20,339 8,030 4,005 26,076 21,951 220 12,587 869
Cement Manufacture 2,673 2,214 1,349 20,060 17,656 200 11,289 869
Lime Manufacture 1,488 762 396 5,888 4,196   971  
Concrete Batching & Products 16,179 5,054 2,260 129 99 21 328  
Chemicals Industry 1,646 1,268 739 13,307 7,411 8,495 9,050 1,890
Chemical Manufacture 656 479 332 8,952 3,263 2,310 5,862 271
Paint & Varnish Manufacturing 17 16 9 0 7 1,998 0 5
Petrochemical Industry 274 234 160 4,261 3,158 1,880 1,422 0
Plastics & Synthetic Resins Fabrication 186 172 122 94 277 2,218 279 37
Fertilizer Production 372 303 84   706 84 1,487 1,569
Other (Chemical Industries) 141 65 32     5 0 8
Mineral Products Industry 566 488 333 580 441 136 2,780 44
Clay Products 36 29 8 34 18   39  
Brick Products                
Other Mineral Products 530 460 325 546 423 136 2,741 44
Foundries 3,877 3,636 3,488 0 63 296 37,957  
Ferrous Foundries 3,833 3,603 3,462 0 63 281 37,956  
Non-ferrous Foundries 13 9 6 0 0 15 0  
Die Casting 31 23 20          
Grain Industries 6,526 2,320 519 385 896 741 257 0
Iron and Steel Industries 5,255 3,126 2,493 18,952 10,370 1,551 35,890 95
Primary (Blast furnace and DRI) 5,054 3,025 2,410 18,781 9,850 1,379 34,766 42
Secondary (Electric Arc Furnaces) 202 101 83 171 520 172 1,124  
Steel Recycling                
Other (Iron and Steel Industries)               53
Iron Ore Mining Industry                
Iron Ore Mining Industry                
Pelletizing                
Mining and Rock Quarrying 58,686 8,230 2,371 14 1,603 138 35,347 17
Rock, Sand and Gravel 44,003 5,199 1,133 3 190 0 88  
Metal Mining 5,207 600 255   776 133 3,381 17
Coal Mining Industry 2,567 1,284 504          
Potash                
Other Minerals 6,908 1,147 479 10 637 4 31,877  
Non-Ferrous Smelting and Refining Industry 4,958 3,332 2,437 231,050 1,031 71 1,854 18
Primary Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb 4,921 3,302 2,411 230,301 966 35 1,854  
Secondary Pb, Cu 19 15 12 749   35    
Other metals 19 15 13   65 1   18
Pulp and Paper Industry 4,163 2,988 2,109 4,041 5,401 2,450 11,166 230
Wood Industry 6,441 2,532 1,813 193 1,574 7,004 16,744 25
Upstream Petroleum Industry 50 50 46 3,145 698 1,818 797 1
Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production and Processing 50 50 46 3,145 698 1,565 797 1
Petroleum Liquids Storage           252    
Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction and Processing                
Oil Sands Mining Extraction and Processing                
Bitumen and Heavy Oil Upgrading                
Other Upstream Petroleum Industry                
Downstream Petroleum Industry 2,007 1,553 899 43,331 7,627 5,987 10,699 18
Petroleum Refining 1,996 1,544 894 42,717 7,368 2,335 10,675 18
Refined Petroleum Products Bulk Storage and Distribution           3,385    
Other Downstream Petroleum Industry 11 10 5 614 259 267 23  
Petroleum Product Transportation and Distribution 52 50 50   9,897 34 1,488  
Natural Gas Transmission 52 50 50   9,897 34 1,488  
Natural Gas Distribution                
Petroleum Product Pipelines                
Other Industries 3,340 2,313 1,700 2,752 17,311 26,249 3,444 302
Metal Fabrication 686 541 438 85 903 5,286 583 1
Glass Manufacture 864 465 436 840 3,338 290 150 63
Vehicle Manufacture ( Engines, Parts, Assembly, Painting) 883 731 430 790 1,192 11,074 1,870 75
Electronics 1 1 1 0 0 30 2 21
Plastics Manufacture 69 56 38 0 137 6,105 163 3
Food Preparation 553 287 176 242 814 1,521 278 136
Paint and Varnish Formulation                
Textiles 7 6 5 0 0 717 0 2
Other (Other Industries) 277 225 177 795 10,926 1,227 398 1
      PM2.5          
TOTAL INDUSTRIAL SOURCES 132,018 42,186 23,762 343,829 86,275 59,435 180,857 3,508
Non-Industrial Sources
Commercial Fuel Combustion 1,410 1,195 1,017 7,484 11,511 4,137 7,539 126
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) 8,693 4,111 1,603 88,178 40,783 723 11,551 58
Coal 8,259 3,750 1,296 86,652 30,363 365 8,104 5
Natural Gas 194 164 162 3 5,454 142 1,758 25
Other (EPG) 239 197 145 1,523 4,966 216 1,689 27
Residential Fuel Combustion 1,296 1,195 1,139 3,131 15,186 806 5,922 145
      PM2.5          
Residential Fuel Wood Combustion 25,481 24,143 24,108 330 2,308 34,146 159,678 208
TOTAL NON-INDUSTRIAL SOURCES 36,879 30,645 27,866 99,123 69,788 39,812 184,690 536
Mobile Sources
Air Transportation 300 300 293 1,641 23,838 3,608 17,410 12
Air Transportation Landing / Take-off 50 50 49 326 3,231 2,397 8,637 2
Air Transportation Inflight 250 250 244 1,315 20,606 1,211 8,774 10
Heavy-duty diesel vehicles 1,450 1,450 1,339 908 66,919 2,473 13,516 168
Heavy-duty gasoline trucks 62 61 52 14 3,853 902 14,036 44
Light-duty diesel trucks 81 81 74 44 857 371 676 5
Light-duty diesel vehicles 43 43 40 17 325 112 515 3
Light-duty gasoline trucks 187 181 158 246 30,453 23,971 504,280 3,148
Light-duty gasoline vehicles 192 186 172 239 30,072 29,714 561,629 4,238
Marine Transportation 1,328 1,276 1,174 10,241 14,146 475 1,204 14
Motorcycles 6 6 4 1 401 1,267 5,027 3
Off-road use of diesel 9,293 9,293 9,014 5,011 100,854 10,297 50,541 74
Off-road use of gasoline/LPG/CNG 3,089 3,089 2,846 37 15,185 91,977 903,167 32
Rail Transportation 1,330 1,330 1,224 1,729 36,964 976 5,329 33
Tire wear & Brake Lining 1,790 1,769 620          
TOTAL MOBILE SOURCES 19,151 19,066 17,010 20,127 323,867 166,143 2,077,329 7,774
Incineration Sources
Crematorium 2 2 2 2 13 1 6  
Industrial & Commercial Incineration       92   158 325 19
Municipal Incineration 3 1 0 41 48 12 18 6
Other Incineration & Utilities 25     689     706  
TOTAL INCINERATION 30 2 2 825 62 171 1,054 25
Miscellaneous Sources
Cigarette Smoking 179 179 179     3 846 30
Dry Cleaning 1 1 1     129    
General Solvent Use           78,446    
Marine Cargo Handling Industry                
Meat Cooking 3,013 3,013 3,013          
Refined Petroleum Products Retail           10,168    
Printing 10 9 7 0 37 22,580 7 0
Structural Fires 80 80 74     82 445 5
Surface Coatings           57,885    
Human               204
Other Miscellaneous Sources               377
TOTAL MISCELLANEOUS 3,283 3,282 3,274 0 37 169,292 1,299 616
Open Sources
Agriculture 213,631 110,871 6,738     41,251   95,827
Agriculture (Animals) 42,692 27,323 4,269     41,251   79,126
Agriculture Tilling and Wind Erosion 169,652 82,917 2,289          
Fertilizer Application 1,287 631 180         16,701
Construction Operations 463,168 137,592 27,003 357 890 12 153 16
Dust from Paved Roads 1,025,549 196,564 47,004          
Dust from Unpaved Roads 1,728,648 570,355 83,897          
Waste 1,744 693 492 103 2,326 4,624 3,070 2,766
Landfills 1,282 259 75 1 1,373 3,883 871 66
Water and Sewage Treatment 26 18 16 69 153 166 311 2,688
Energy from Waste 129 109 94 14 686   279  
Open Burning 306 306 306 19 115 575 1,609 12
Mine Tailings 4,318 345 86          
Prescribed Burning 552 514 457 21 145 673 3,722 15
TOTAL OPEN SOURCES 3,437,610 1,016,934 165,677 480 3,362 46,561 6,945 98,623
Natural Sources
Natural Sources 21,987 18,689 15,391 13 20,317 4,297,337 181,066 388
Biogenics (Vegetation,soils)         14,549 4,272,506    
Forest Fires 21,987 18,689 15,391 13 5,768 24,832 181,066 388
TOTAL NATURAL SOURCES 21,987 18,689 15,391 13 20,317 4,297,337 181,066 388
GRAND TOTAL 3,650,957 1,130,803 252,982 464,396 503,708 4,778,751 2,633,239 111,471
WITHOUT OPEN AND NATURAL SOURCES 191,361 95,181 71,915 463,903 480,029 434,853 2,445,229 12,460

 
  1. The 2006 emissions inventory was compiled in collaboration with the provincial, territorial, and regional environmental agencies using the latest emission estimation methodologies and statistics available as of March 2008. It represents the most comprehensive emissions inventory available for Canada.

Comparing Particle Emissions from Traffic, Cigarettes and Heating

 

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