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Denmark


http://www.braenderoeg.dk


http://www.braenderoeg.dk 
 
Hovedparten af de fine partikler fra danske kilder kommer fra brændeovnsrøg.

Røgen indeholder også en helbredsskadelig blanding af kræftfremkaldende tjærestoffer og hormonforstyrrende dioxiner.

Kendskabet til brænderøgens sundhedsskadelige virkninger har været udbredt i USA siden 1980.

I Danmark vinder denne indsigt kun langsomt frem.
 
HelbredseffekterRøglugt er et faresignal.

Luftforurening med fine partikler, tjærestoffer og dioxin kan give anledning til alvorlige sundhedseffekter.

Det gælder både akutte effekter som irritation af øjne, næse eller hals og langtidseffekter som allergi, astma, kræft og lunge- og hjertekar-sygdomme.

Små børn, ældre mennesker og folk med luftvejslidelser tåler dårligst brændeovnsrøg. 
BeskyttelseErstat jeres egen brændeovn med en mindre sundhedsskadelig opvarmningsform som f.eks. varmepumpe, eller fjernvarme.

Tal med venner og naboer om røggenerne fra brændeovne.

Ved væsentlige røggener kan I kontakte teknik- og miljøforvaltningen i kommunen.

Landsforeningen (LOB) kan måske hjælpe jer med at få fjernet røgproblemerne i jeres boligområde. 
Landsforeningens formålAt fremme kendskabet til brænderøgens skadelige virkninger for at få fjernet røggener fra boligområder.

At opbygge et vidensarkiv til hjælp for Landsforeningens medlemmer.

At bistå medlemmer i deres klagesager over røggener.IndmeldelseSend en mail med dit navn, adresse og tlf.nr. til foreningens formand Solveig C.-Dupont cand.scient. braenderoeg @ braenderoeg.dk

eller ring 2084-4014

Medlemskontingent er 75 kroner år 
 Excerpted from the World Health Organization:
International Agency for the Research of Cancer
HOUSEHOLD COMBUSTION OF SOLID FUELS
Indoor emissions from household combustion of coal (Group 1)
Indoor emissions from household combustion of biomass fuel (primarily
wood) (Group 2A)
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Meetings/95-coal-biomass.pdf
 
Rolf Czeskleba-Dupont of Denmark has written a research report, which was edited last November at a transnational publisher on "Toxic emissions and devaluated CO2-neutrality. Expanded combustion of stem wood violates sustainable development".
Reviewers may order it as an e-book from: info@vdm-publishing.com
 
Possible readers are those, who are interested in climate politics without suppressing local pollution themes as e.g. Chlorinated dioxins (PCDD/F) from the combustion of wood. The Danish Ministry of the Environment has, unfortunately, made a junction between these two issues in its 2006 report to the Stockholm Convention. In an appendix, technicians recommended to restrict the use of wood stoves and other small combustion appliances without flue gas cleansing. But they were stopped in this initiative by a statement on climate politics favoring wood combustion as CO2-neutral. However, according to earlier information, wood combustion (as all biomass combustion) emits more CO2 pr. unit of energy released than all fossil fuels. And, according to the most recent country statistics reported to international conventions, 2/3 of all dioxin emissions from Danish sources stem from wood stoves (also 70% of fine particle mass and 91% of PAH). Concerned citizens may be inspired to further information gathering.

Environmental, energy and climate policies need fresh reflections. In order to evaluate toxics reduction policies the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is mandatory. Denmark's function as lead country for dioxin research in the context of the OSPAR Convention is contrasted with a climate policy whose goals of CO2-reduction were made operational by green-wash. Arguments are given for the devaluation of CO2- neutrality in case of burning wood. Alternative practices as storing C in high quality wood products and/or leaving wood in the forest are recommended.

A counter-productive effect of dioxin formation in the cooling phase of wood burning appliances has been registered akin to de-novo-synthesis in municipal solid waste incinerators. Researchers, regulators and the public are, however, still preoccupied by notions of oven design and operation parameters, assuming that dioxin behaves on line with other toxic pollutants from incomplete combustion. Evidence is given that this is not the case.
Societal-historical problems of lacking consistency in dioxin research are contrasted with more sustainable approaches. This is obligatory reading for concerned citizens.

 ___________________________

The Journal of Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies (TES)

Volume 11, Number 2, 2012, pp.37-47

ISSN 1602-2297 http://www.journal-tes.dk/

A Secular Carbon Debt from Atmospheric highTemperature Combustion of Stem Wood ?

Rolf Czeskleba-Dupont

Ph.D., M.Sc., Roskilde University, Department of Society and Globalization, Universitetsvej 1,

building 20.2, DK-4000 Roskilde, E-mail: nest@ruc.dk

Abstract: Basically, the combustion of woody biomass in high temperature processes results in a

long lasting addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. When harvesting large extra amounts of

stem tree for energetic use, a global as well as secular time frame is needed to assess overall

consequences if due attention is to be given to biosphere processes, including the complex

productivity of whole ecosystems. Analytically, a time dependent variable of carbon neutralization

can be traced by a simple carbon neutrality or CN factor. Using the (forgotten) Marland approach,

project managers should document how a pay-back of the whole carbon debt incurred by their

projects proceeds over time. As recommended by the European Parliament in May 2011, this

methodology should be applied consistently in climate and energy policies when revising the

failures of the ‘instant carbon neutrality’ approach for smokestack emissions that was propagated

within the Kyoto process, the first phase of which is ending in 2012. Otherwise, we allow that the

substitution of wood pellets for coal or other fossil fuels creates a long lasting addition of carbon

dioxide to the atmosphere. This is a climate policy mistake which carbon trading systems such as

that of the EU ETS do not compensate for, but instead amplify by giving extra credits for further

pollution. This contradicts the very purpose of the UNFCCC, namely to prevent environmental

degradation.

Keywords: Critical realism, global warming, wood fuels, carbon accounting, lag time, life cycle

analysis, carbon credits, Kyoto process, carbon neutrality factor, project evaluation, resistance

En langvarig kulstofgæld fra atmosfærisk højtemperatur

forbrænding af stamtræ ?

Rolf Czeskleba-Dupont

Ph.D., M.Sc., Roskilde University, Department of Society and Globalization, Universitetsvej 1,

building 20.2, DK-4000 Roskilde, E-mail: nest@ruc.dk

Sammenfatning: Forbrændingen af træbiomasse i høj-temperatur processer resulterer i en

langvarig forøgelse af kuldioxyd i atmosfæren. Når der høstes store ekstra-mængder stamtræ for

energetiske anvendelser, er en global såvel som århundredelang ramme nødvendig for en samlet

vurdering af konsekvenserne, såfremt man vil skænke biosfæreprocesserne den nødvendige

opmærksomhed, herunder den komplekse produktivitet af hele økosystemer. Ved hjælp af en simpel

faktor for kulstofneutralitet (CN) er det analytisk muligt at spore en tidsafhængig variabel for

kulstoffets neutralisering. Projektmagere skulle bruge den (glemte) Marland-metode for at

dokumentere, hvordan tilbagebetalingen af hele den kulstofgæld forløber, som de stifter gennem

deres projekter. Som i maj 2011 anbefalet af Europaparlamentet, skulle denne metodologi på en

konsistent måde anvendes i klima- og energipolitikken, når det gælder om at revidere fejlene af den

beregningsmetode for skorstensemissioner, der blev propageret under den første fase af Kyotoprocessen,

der udløber i 2012 ('umiddelbar kulstof-neutralitet'). Ellers tillader vi at erstatningen af

kullene eller andre fossile brændsler gennem træpiller giver ophav til langvarige forøgelser af

kuldioxyd i atmosfæren. Her foreligger en fejl i klimapolitikken, som kulstofhandels-systemer som

EU's ETS ikke kompenserer for, men som de i stedet for forstærker ved at give ekstra-kreditter for

yderligere forurening. Derved handles stik imod selve meningen med UNFCCC, nemlig at forhindre

miljøets forringelser.

Nøgleord: Kritisk realisme, global opvarmning, træbrændsler, kulstofregnkaber, tidsforskydning,

livscyklus-analyser, kulstofkreditter, Kyotoproces, kulstofneutralitets-faktor, projektvurdering,

modstand

Eine sekulare Kohlenstoffschuld durch atmosphärische

Hochtemperatur-Verbrennung von Stammholz?

Rolf Czeskleba-Dupont

Ph.D., M.Sc., Roskilde University, Department of Society and Globalization, Universitetsvej 1,

building 20.2, DK-4000 Roskilde, E-mail: nest@ruc.dk

Zusammenfassung: Die Verbrennung von Holzbiomasse in Hochtemperaturprozessen führt zu

einer säkularen Erhöhung der Kohlendioxyd-Konzentration in der Atmosphäre. Bei der Ernte von

großen Extramengen von Stammholz für energetische Zwecke ist ein globaler sowie säkularer

Rahmen zur Gesamtbewertung der Konsequenzen notwendig, wenn anders Biosphäreprozesse

gebührend berücksichtigt werden sollen, hierunter die komplexe Produktivität ganzer Ökosysyteme.

Mithilfe eines einfachen Faktors für Kohlenstoff-Neutralität (CN) ist es analytisch möglich, eine

zeitabhängige Variable der Neutralisierung von Kohlenstoff zu verfolgen. Projektmacher sollten

die (in Vergessenheit geratene) Marland-Methode zur Dokumentation der Art und Weise

gebrauchen, wie die Rückzahlung der durch ihre Projekte gestifteten Kohlenstoffschuld insgesamt

verläuft. Wie vom Europaparlament im Mai 2011 empfohlen, sollte diese Methodologie in der

Klima- und Energiepolitik konsistent angewendet werden, wenn es um die Revision jener Fehler in

der Berechnung von Schornsteinemissionen geht, die in der ersten Phase des Kiotoprozesses, die

2012 ausläuft, propagiert wurden ('unmittelbare Kohlenstoff-Neutralität'). Ansonsten erlauben wir,

daß die Substitution von Kohle und anderen fossilen Brennstoffen durch Holzpellets zu einer

säkularen Erhöhung der Kohlendioxyd-Konzentration in der Atmosphäre führt. Dies bedeutet einen

Fehler in der Klimapolitik, den Kohlenstoff-Handelssysteme wie das ETS der EU nicht ausgleichen,

sondern den sie stattdessen verstärken, indem extra-Kredite für erhöhte Verunreinigung ausgegeben

werden. Dies steht im Widerspruch zum Sinn der UNFCCC, nämlich der Umweltverschmutzung

vorzubeugen.

Keywords: Kritischer Realismus, Erderwärmung, Holzbrennstoffe, Zeitverschiebung, Lebenszyklus-

Analysen, Kohlenstoffkredite, Kiotoprozeß, Kohlenstoff-Neutralitätsfaktor,

Projektbewertung,Widerstand


A DRAMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL SENTENCE

On July, 5 2012 the High Court of Eastern Denmark finalised its sentence in relation to the local authorities of Guldborgsund which on November 9, 2010 had won their case in a County Court being represented by a Police Counsel for the Prosecution.

Central to the case is air pollution from a wood fired boiler unit with a capacity of 75 kW, i.e. about 15 times bigger than a wood stove. According to the sentence the owner of the boiler is condemned to raise its chimney from 11,5 to 14 meter before October, 1 2012 so that it becomes ”1 meter higher than the highest part of the nearest roof in order to make the necessary dilution of smoke possible.” - The High Court thus confirmed the ruling of the County Court which hinted at the fact that wood smoke particles are absorbed in human lungs (”respirable particels”).

The case came to court because the boiler owners in X-købing midtown regarded the order of the local authorities to raise the chimney as void. Firstly they were of the opinion that the order was based on insufficient grounds. According to their opinion there was a lack of investigations by measurements and more inspections. Secondly the owners claimed that eventual nuisances from wood smoke were no ”essential pollution” in the sense of the Law on Environmental Protection and that ”the order was in conflict with the principle of proportionality.”

The High Court ruling is based upon the fact ”that downdrifting of smoke into the street as well as dwelling units in the vicinity occurred and is still occurring in not negligeable measure at certain usual wind conditions.- On this background, the High Court assumes as being evident that the incinerator on the premises of the accused was and is still a cause of essential pollution in the meaning specified in §42 of the Law on Environmental Protection.”- Finally, the judges do NOT accept that the cost of around 25 000 € which is connected with rising the height of the chimney and improving its basement is contrary to the principle of proportionality. In other words, the High Court found it reasonable that the polluters pay such an amount taking into account the damage which shall be avoided.

The dramatic aspects of the case consist of the following:

The legal grounds of executing orders in connection with wood smoke

nuisances have been made visible.- These grounds were sinking into oblivion.

There is now created a precedent for local authorities to win wood smoke

cases, if existing legal grounds are used and inspections have been thorough.

By this way, there is now put up a buffer stop against the interpretation of

environmental laws by the authorities as a protection of wood stove ownership

more than of enviromental and public health. This gives hope to neighbours

who are embarrassed by wood smoke in their vicinity.

The neighbour of the polluting installation who brought things to the attention

of the local authorities died in sommer 2011 and is presumably one of the

hundreds of victims of wood smoke pollution dying prematurely each year in

Denmark. There are, however, no rules of identifying these victims.

The ruling (S3687004-MAK) will be published in MAD (Miljøretlige Afgørelser og

Domme; Decisions and Rulings in Environmental Law, Danish) edited by Kanorv

Publishers. Solveig Czeskleba-Dupont ( braenderoeg@braenderoeg.dk )


 

Danish National Association for Wood Smoke Nuisance Information (LOB)

Head of Association: Solveig CzesklebaDupont, M.Sc. Hyldebjerg 25 DK4330

Hvalsø tel. +0045 4640 8883

Email: braenderoeg@branderoeg.dk 

After almost ten years of local as well as national campaigns to inform citizens and authorities about existing knowledge on nuisance from wood smoke LOB came into existence in 2009. As an independent grass roots organisation LOB has a threefold aim:

a) to promote knowledge on adverse impacts of wood smoke in order to eliminate wood nuisance from built-up areas;

b) to establish a knowledgebase to assist members of the National Association;

c) specifically to assist members daring to complain locally about wood smoke nuisance.

LOB cooperates with other environmental and health organisations insofar as they can support the aims of LOB. We are, however, not only critical against local pollution and its related health effects from toxic agents such as small particles, tar and dioxins; but also against global effects of an increasing rush into wood incineration which harms both people, forests and the climate.

One of LOBs projects builds uponOnline monitoring of the extremely unhealthy small particles in ambient air. A pilot project continually measures air concentrations on the premises of a private residential house in the outskirts of Copenhagen. It shows a substantial lowering of particleconcentrations by up to a factor of 2/3 in high summer (July and August), see www.braenderoeg.dk heading 'Dagens partikeltal'. There cannot be much controversy regarding the causes of this curious fenomenon. [We regret, but the accompanying texts are as yet in Danish only.]

In another project, LOB collects informations from members on their own situation and goes on towards a national survey regarding those ¾ million Danish residents who are estimated to suffer from wood smoke nuisance caused by a roughly equal number of polluters.






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